Nike (Nike) - history of American sports brand

Nike, Inc. - American company, world-renowned manufacturer of sporting goods. Headquarters - in the city of Beaverton, Oregon, USA.


Foundation of the company

Typically, each new company takes a new niche, or conquers it from someone providing goods or services better or cheaper. With Nike linked both.

The company was founded in 1964 by a student Phil Knight (Phil Knight), he was a middle-distance runner in the team of the University of Oregon and his coach Bill Bowerman (Bill Bowerman). In those years, the athletes were practically no choice in sports shoes. Adidas has cost quite expensive - $ 30, was a high-quality, and ordinary American sneakers cost $ 5, but they hurt his feet, especially after the run. If professional athletes could afford Adidas, it was a sad situation for the fans.

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To remedy this situation, Phil Knight came up with a brilliant scheme - order shoes in Asian countries and selling them in the US market. Getting economic MBA education at Stanford in the 60s, Knight took lessons in the classroom Frank Schellenberger (Frank Shallenberger). The task of one of the workshops was the development strategy of small private firms of business, including marketing plan. According to legend, "Nike", it is at this seminar on marketing Knight came up with the concept of the company. Initially, the company was known as Blue Ribbon Sports officially did not exist.

In 1963, Phil Knight is sent to Japan - in those days there labor was cheap, and contracts on behalf of the Blue Ribbon Sports company with Onitsuka, for delivery in the US sneaker. On top sneakers sold literally hands, or rather out of the van, minibus Knight. He just stopped on the street and began to trade. He was 26 years old and he liked the business.

During the year of the company sold shoes at 8000 dollars and was hired the first employee. They found Jeff Johnson - sales manager, the way they say it, he coined the name the company - Nike. Nick - it's a Greek goddess who symbolizes the victory, it was in her honor and was named company.

In 1971, a student at Portland State University - Carolyn Davidson invents the Nike logo (in common - nozzle). She did it for ridiculous money by today's standards - 30 dollars. It is true later when the company has grown, Phil Knight gave her a statue Nike logo with diamonds and a number of the company that does him honor.



The company in 1973 was fairly well known, has sold shoes already on more than $ 1 million but net income was not large. Nike has been gaining popularity because of the waffle sole. And it came up with Bill Bauer, sitting in the kitchen and looking at his wife's waffle iron. Waffle outsole is actually grooved outsole in shoes that make the shoes lighter and slightly increase the push during the run. This invention is brought Nike in the lead. This also contributed to the fashion for fitness, so shoes were selling well.


The main competitor Nike while Adidas has been, in my time, and to our situation has not changed. The two companies are arguing in the first place in the market. But in 1973, Adidas is experiencing hard times and therefore Nacu managed to get around it and to win 50% market share.

Nike Air

Probably everyone knows the famous series of Nike Air shoes. And it was invented back in 1979, the air engineer Frank. Initially, he sought where it can be implemented and applied to Nike, which was refused. They denied him and other shoe companies, and he returned to Nike, and has already been more insistent with him signed. The essence of technology was that it would create a shoe cushioning system that extends the life of the shoe. Built-in running shoes air cushion sneakers really prolongs life. Frank Paris met the expectations placed on it at the conclusion of the contract.

The first advertising

Throughout its activities Nike has collaborated with well-known athletes and sports organizations, but the most famous contract was signed in 1985 with Michael Jordan, when he was just starting his career. The contract was signed during the downturn in demand for the products of Nike. At that time, the company tried to produce fashionable shoes, which is more intended for the common people and less associated with the sport, why that consumers did not like it. But thanks to the Nike commercials returned profits and power of the brand.

Jordan Nike actively promoted, and played them more Air Jordan shoes have been specially designed for Michael Jordan. Black and red colors in the NBA banned poured Michael a $ 1,000 fine for each completed game. But he was paid for advertising much more.



Nike has become a symbol of world sport. For basketball was the Olympics, baseball, hockey, golf and other sports. It is true in football is still dominated by Adidas. In the 90 years the company has seen many changes. Firstly, it was reconstructed organization. There were independent units responsible for a particular sport.

Now if you look at the World Cup, Nike is quite common, almost on a par with Adidas. This was aided by the company's activity on the Internet.

Our days

Nike has created a social network dedicated to basketball. In addition, the company is trying to be on the crest of a wave. Today, Nike is used to its fullest newfangled trend called hand-made, when the user wants to create a product with their own hands. It may do so at a company site. Naturally, in this case it will be possible to order a model of sneakers created by your imagination. In addition, in the XXI century, the company signed a contract with Apple's, under which the two giants began to produce a set of Nike + iPod, in which the player has been linked with sneakers, so he could report the owner of statistical data on the jog.


Nike continues today to sponsor well-known athletes, to arrange their sports activities and develop a revolutionary footwear for sports. The company believes that if a person has a body, it is in any case an athlete. So her target audience.

However, all this does not mean that the company does not have problems. They also have Nike. In particular, a number of problems constantly cause not the most pleasant situation with the workers in the factories in third world countries, where are Nike sneakers. Here there is not only extremely low wages, around $ 40 per month, and child labor. The company is trying to deal with this situation, but do not always succeed efficiently.

In addition, these working conditions there is a problem and a number of factories in China, where the release of harmful substances passes any acceptable standards. If you have poor health care employees. Nike tries to control such things and prevent them. But in order to deal effectively with these situations need large investments in infrastructure, in a production that giants such as Nike transferred to Asia exclusively due to low prices. It is unlikely that companies are eager to invest a lot of money there.